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 Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture

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Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Empty
PostSubject: Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture   Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture I_icon_minitime21st September 2016, 12:29 pm

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture OuOnJei



Wayang is a Javanese word for a theatrical performance with puppets or human dancers. The term 'wayang' itself is the Javanese word for shadow, or bayang in standard Indonesian. In modern daily Javanese and Indonesian vocabulary, wayang is most often associated with the puppet itself or the whole puppet theatre performance.

There is no evidence that wayang existed before the first century CE, after Hinduism and Buddhism were brought to Southeast Asia. This leads to the hypothesis that the art was imported from either India or China, both of which have a long tradition of shadow puppetry and theatre in general. The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says si Galigi mawayang, or "Sir Galigi played wayang". From that time until today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bhima from the Mahabharata.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Tumblr_inline_nr6cvhhgAl1txgyyd_500

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Wayang kulit is a unique form of theatre employing light and shadow. The puppets are crafted from buffalo hide and mounted on bamboo sticks (hence the word 'kulit', which means skin). When held up behind a piece of white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the screen. The plays are typically based on romantic tales, especially adaptations of the classic Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Some of the plays are also based on local happening or other local secular stories. It is up to the conductor or dalang, the master puppeteer, to decide his direction. The dalang is the genius behind the entire performance. It is he who sits behind the screen and narrates the story. With a traditional orchestra in the background to provide a resonant melody and its conventional rhythm, the dalang modulates his voice to create suspense thus heightening the drama. Invariably, the play climaxes with the triumph of good over evil.

There are other types of wayang as well, such as ones performed by people or by those wearing masks.

Tari Kecak

Kecak is a form of Balinese dance and music drama that was developed in the 1930s in Bali, Indonesia. Since its creation, it has been performed primarily by men, with the very first women's kecak group starting in 2006.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Balinese-bali-kecak-dance-history-sejarah-tari-kecak-bali-1

Also known as the Ramayana Monkey Chant, the piece, performed by a circle of at least 150 performers wearing checked cloth around their waists, percussively chanting "cak" and moving their hands and arms, depicts a battle from the Ramayana. The monkey-like Vanara led by Hanuman helped Prince Rama fight the evil King Ravana. Kecak has roots in sanghyang, a trance-inducing exorcism dance.

Musical Instruments


The angklung is a musical instrument from Indonesia made of two to four bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The tubes are carved to have a resonant pitch when struck and are tuned to octaves, similar to American handbells. The base of the frame is held in one hand, whilst the other hand shakes the instrument. This causes a repeating note to sound. Each of three or more performers in an angklung ensemble play just one note or more, but altogether complete melodies are produced.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Angklung01
Fun Fact: In elementary school, I played angklung.
I was in the 'sol' group, which means we're specifically in charge of playing the 'sol' note.


Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments. The most common instruments used are metallophones played by mallets and a set of hand-played drums called kendhang which register the beat. Other instruments include xylophones, bamboo flutes, a bowed instrument called a rebab, and even vocalists called sindhen.

Although the popularity of gamelan has declined since the introduction of pop music, gamelan is still commonly played on formal occasions and in many traditional Indonesian ceremonies. For most Indonesians, gamelan is an integral part of Indonesian culture.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture NO-FEE-6-NCH-Gamelan-Presentation

Traditional Clothes


Batik is a technique of wax-resist dyeing applied to whole cloth, or cloth made using this technique. Batik is made either by drawing dots and lines of the resist with a spouted tool called a canting, or by printing the resist with a copper stamp called a cap (stamp). The applied wax resists dyes and therefore allows the artisan to colour selectively by soaking the cloth in one colour, removing the wax with boiling water, and repeating if multiple colours are desired.

The word batik is Javanese in origin. It may either come from the Javanese word amba ('to write') and titik ('dot'), or may derive from a hypothetical Proto-Austronesian root *beCík ('to tattoo').

The most traditional type of batik, called batik tulis (written batik), is drawn using only the canting. The cloth need to be drawn on both sides and dipped in a dye bath three to four times. The whole process may take up to a year; it yields considerably finer patterns than stamped batik.

After the UNESCO recognition for Indonesian batik on 2 October 2009, the Indonesian administration asked Indonesians to wear batik on Fridays, and wearing batik every Friday has been encouraged in government offices and private companies ever since. 2 October is also celebrated as National Batik Day in Indonesia. Batik had helped improve the small business local economy, batik sales in Indonesia had reached Rp 3.9 trillion (US$436.8 million) in 2010, an increase from Rp 2.5 trillion in 2006. The value of batik exports, meanwhile, increased from $14.3 million in 2006 to $22.3 million in 2010.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Jalan-jalan-melihat-proses-pembuatan-batik-tulis-yuk

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Macam-macam-batik-indonesia

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Cari-Kain-Batik-Murah-di-BudidanSiti



The kebaya is the national costume of Indonesia, although it is more accurately endemic to the Javanese, Malay, Sundanese and Balinese peoples. A kebaya is a traditional blouse-dress combination that originated from the court of the Javanese Majapahit Kingdom, and is traditionally worn by women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Burma, southern Thailand, Cambodia and the southern part of the Philippines. It is sometimes made from sheer material such as silk, thin cotton or semi-transparent nylon or polyester, adorned with brocade or floral pattern embroidery.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture 1024px-Kebaya_1

The earliest form of Kebaya originates in the court of the Javanese Majapahit Kingdom as a means to blend the existing female Kemban, torso wrap of the aristocratic women to be more modest and acceptable to the newly adopted Islam religion.

Kebaya is associated with a type of blouse worn by Indonesian women in 15th or 16th century. Prior to 1600, kebaya on Java island were considered as a reserved clothing to be worn only by royal family, aristocrats and minor nobility, in an era when peasant men and many women walked publicly bare-chested.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Model-Kebaya-Kombinasi-Batik
A more modern version of Kebaya

Kebaya is also sometimes used in traditional weddings, like in the examples below.

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Foto-kebaya

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture 1

Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture Kebaya+pernikahan+modern

Fun fact: During Hari Kartini (Kartini Day), a day to remember Raden Adjeng Kartini, a prominent Indonesian national heroine from Java, my kindergarten created a competition for best traditional costume. I wore the kebaya typically worn in Javanese traditional weddings, got paired up with my crush at the time (my parents made this happen somehow, I don't even know how), and we won first place.

A bit more about Kartini, she was also a pioneer in the area of education for girls and women's rights for Indonesians. Born into an aristocratic Javanese family in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, she attended a Dutch language primary school. She aspired to further education but the option was unavailable to her and other girls in Javanese society. She came into contact with various officials and influential people including J.H. Abendanon, in charge of implementing the Dutch Ethical Policy.

Kartini wrote letters about her feelings and they were published in a Dutch magazine and later as: Out of Darkness to Light, Women's Life in the Village and Letters of a Javanese Princess. Her birthday is now celebrated as Kartini Day in Indonesia. Her advocacy for the education of girls was continued by her sisters. Kartini Schools were named for her and a fund established in her name to fund the education of girls.


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PostSubject: Re: Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture   Budaya Indonesia - Indonesian Culture I_icon_minitime24th September 2016, 12:08 pm

I saw and heard the gamelan ages ago on a youtube video but never learned/forgot the name until now. They remind me of a music box, or music box/wind chime hybrid.


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